Grape Vineyard Spraying
Vineyard Field By Andrew McMillan
Grape Vineyards use our Mist Sprayers for spraying fungicides, insecticides, organic products, dormant spraying and foliar fertilizers. A Mist Sprayer will deposit spray droplets on the underside of the leaves. 1-2 gallons per acre will effectively cover your crop with swath widths of 40'' to 75''. This is next to impossible with conventional boom or aerial spraying methods. Visit our Vineyard Sprayer website...Vineyard-Sprayers.com
Mist Sprayers provide better coverage at a much lower cost than you would incur with other application methods. ; Many producers/growers have sprayed their grapes with an AmeriBest Mist Sprayer. They have reported excellent results at treatment levels 25-30% below conventional spraying methods and in half the time!
Black rot is one of the most serious diseases of grapes in the United States. Crop losses can range from 5 to 80 percent, depending on the amount of disease in the vineyard, the weather, and plant susceptibility. The fungus, Guignardia bidwelli, can infect all green parts of the vine. Most damaging is the effect on fruit. Later fruit infections can destroy many grapes, even the entire crop.
The fungus overwinters in mummified berries on the soil or in old berry clusters that hang in the vines. Spores of the fungus are produced within the diseased fruit and infect leaves, blossoms and young fruit during spring rains. Fruit infections occur from midbloom until the berries begins to color.
Botrytis bunch rot, or gray mold, is a disease that exists in all vineyards worldwide. The disease is caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea and is associated commonly with the decay of ripe or nearly ripe grapes. Temperature and damp climates favor disease development. The bunch rot phase of the disease causes the greatest economic losses.
Botrytis bunch rot also infects numerous wild hosts and cultivated plants. The fungus can live on these alternate host’s dead tissue. The pathogen overwinters on bark and in dormant buds. In the spring, spores are produced by the fungus and infect leaves and young grape clusters. Fungicide sprays are suggested on very susceptible varieties during the bloom period. The sprays will reduce the number of infected flower parts and the incidence of young fruit infection. Any practice that reduces skin cracking or skin punctures near harvest helps control ripe fruit rot. Preharvest fungicide applications are also recommended.
Downy mildew occurs wherever it is warm and wet during the growing season. The disease is caused by the fungus Plasmopara viticola, which overwinters as spores in fallen leaves. Downy mildew infection can become a severe problem when a wet winter is followed by a wet spring and a warm summer with a lot of rainfall. The pathogen attacks all green parts of the vine, especially the leaves. Lesions on leaves are angular, yellowish, sometimes oily, and located between the veins. As the disease progresses, a white cottony growth can be observed on the lower leaf surface. Severely infected leaves will drop. Young berries are highly susceptible, appearing grayish when infected. Berries become less susceptible when mature. Infected berries remain firm compared to healthy berries, which soften as they ripen. Eventually, infected berries will drop.
Fungicides are the most important control measure for downy mildew. They should be applied just before bloom, 7 to 10 days later (usually at the end of bloom), 10 to 14 days after that, and finally, 3 weeks after the third application. For cultivars very susceptible to downy mildew, or where the disease was severe the previous season, an additional application is suggested about 2 weeks before the first blossoms open.
Phomopsis cane, leaf spot, and fruit rot is one of two distinct diseases that used to be referred to as “dead arm,” and is widely distributed in vineyards. The disease can weaken vines, reduce yields, and lower fruit quality. This disease is often the first disease of the growing season to appear in the vineyard. Infections on new shoots first appear as reddish spots about 1/16-inch in diameter. Infected portions of the leaf turn yellow then brown. This fungus also causes a fruit rot. Infected fruit will turn brown, shrivel, and eventually drop. In winter, cane infections can be observed.
The disease is caused by the fungus Phomopsis viticola. The fungus overwinters in bark and leaf petioles. In the spring, especially under wet conditions, spores produced by the fungus exude from infected tissue and are splashed onto shoot tips. Only very young tissues are infected. In summer, the fungus becomes inactive, but by fall it resumes activity. Infection in the vineyard is localized because disease is spread mostly within the vine rather than from vine to vine. If the disease is not controlled, with each increasing year it will become more severe in the vineyard.
Phomopsis cane and leaf spot can be controlled by a combination of sanitation and fungicide application. The cane and leaf infections can be prevented by one or two early-season fungicide sprays. Fruit and cluster stem infections occur from bloom until the fruit are pea sized. Regular fungicide applications are necessary to prevent disease.
Powdery mildew is an important fungal disease of grapes. If not controlled on susceptible cultivars, the disease can reduce vine growth, yield, quality, and winter hardiness. The fungus can infect all green tissues of the grapevine. It was previously thought that the fungus overwintered inside dormant buds of the grapevine. Research has shown that almost all overwintering inoculum comes from cleistothecia, which are fungal fruiting bodies that overwinter primarily in bark crevices on the grapevine. In the spring, airborne spores (ascospores) released from the cleistothecia are the primary inoculum for powdery mildew infections.
Ascospores are carried by wind. They germinate on any green surface on the developing vine, and enter the plant resulting in primary infections. The fungus grows and another type of spore (conidia) is formed over the infected area after 6 to 8 days. The conidia and fungus mycelia give a powdery or dusty appearance to infected plant parts. The conidia serve as "secondary inoculum" for new infections throughout the remainder of the growing season. It is important to note that a primary infection caused by one ascospore will result in the production of hundreds of thousands of conidia, each of which is capable of causing secondary infections. Therefore, as with black rot, it must be emphasized that early season control of primary infections caused by ascospores is necessary. If primary infections are controlled until all the ascospores have been discharged, the amount of inoculum available for causing late season (secondary) infections is greatly reduced.
Insects in Grapes
Climbing cutworms are known to feed on grapes. The larvae hide in the soil litter below the grape trellis and climb onto vines on warm nights to feed on developing primary grape buds. Only during bud swell are cutworms able to inflict serious damage to a vineyard. To examine for cutworms, search under the bark and in the soil litter beneath a vine with damaged buds, or search the vine with a flashlight after dark.
European red mites are spider mites that are especially severe in vineyards adjacent to apple orchards. Both adults and nymphs pierce the cells on the leaf undersides and extract plant juices. Heavily infested leaves take on a characteristic bronze coloration.
Grape berry moths are very serious insect pests affecting grapes. Two and occasionally three generations of moths hatch per season.
Grape leafhoppers overwinter under leaves and litter and enter vineyards in the spring. These overwintered adults do not cause serious damage. Depending on the length of the growing season, several generations can occur, with rapid population increases. Both the 1/8-inch adults and the nymphs feed on the underside of grape leaves by piercing the tissue and sucking out the plant juices. Damaged leaves become blotchy and yellow.
Grape phylloxera are minute insects with a complex life cycle. Two forms of phylloxera occur within the same species, and several generations of each can occur in any given year. The root gall form feeds on the outside of galls or swellings on the roots. The leaf gall form lives inside galls on the underside of grape leaves. Grape varieties vary widely in their susceptibility to both forms of phylloxera.
Grapevine flea beetles are small (3/16-inch) bluish-black beetles that damage vines by feeding on small (1/2-inch) grape buds. In addition, their 1/4-inch larvae feed on the upper surface of the leaves.
Japanese beetle adults cause damage by feeding on the foliage and occasionally the berries. One generation hatches each year, with the peak of adult activity occurring in mid summer. Vines with smooth thin leaves are most susceptible to Japanese beetle attack. Young vines should be monitored closely to prevent excessive damage.
Redbanded leaf roller larvae occasionally attack grape clusters. Their life cycle is similar to that of the grape berry moth, except that the larvae feed on the surface of the grape berry rather than internally.
Rose chafers are clumsy light-brown beetles about 5/8 inch long. Damage from these insects occurs around bloom and chiefly consists of feeding damage to leaves and, to a lesser extent, to flowers. Populations usually are present for only 5 to 10 days.
The AmeriBest Mist Sprayer provides more uniform coverage. no streaks or missed spots, and you find that you have 100% better control of the chemical and its target area with proper application and bordering. AmeriBest Mist Sprayer''s high and low volume mist sprayers create smaller mist size particles in a 0 to 140'' air stream that stays low to the ground for the best control and uniform coverage. Over, Under and Around plant foliage
Foliar Feeding - Foliar feeding is used when insufficient fertilizer was used before planting, when a quick growth response is wanted, when micro-nutrients (such as iron or zinc) are locked into the soil, or when the soil is too cold for the plants to use the fertilizer applied to the soil. Foliar-applied nutrients are absorbed and used by the plant quite rapidly. Absorption begins within minutes after application and, with most nutrients, it is completed within 1 to 2 days. Foliar nutrition can be a supplement to soil nutrition at a critical time for the plant, but not a substitute since greater amounts of plant material are needed than what can be absorbed through the plant leaf at any given time. At transplanting time, an application of phosphorus spray will help in the establishment of the young plant in cold soils. For perennial plants, early spring growth is usually limited by cold soil, even when the air is warm. Under such conditions, soil microorganisms are not active enough to convert nutrients into forms available for roots to absorb; yet, if the nutrients were available, the plants could utilize them. A nutrient spray to the foliage will provide the needed nutrients immediately, allowing the plants to begin growth.
Our versatile, compact mist sprayer units can be used in many different insecticide, herbicide and fungicide applications, including... Fruits & Vegetables, Specialty and Row crops , Foliar Fertilizer applications, Orchards, Groves and Windbreaks Fly , Mosquito and other insect control, pasture/grass applications , and Many More!