Coffee Tree Plantation Spraying
Our Mist Blowers are perfect for coffee tree spraying applications. Spray insecticides and fungicides on coffee trees and get more uniform droplets per square inch of surface area and up to 35% of the droplets deposited on the underside of leaves. Use the 1-Way 11-Nozzle Vertical Tree Volute on our full size Mist Sprayers (pictured on the 3-point sprayer at right or our 5-Nozzle Vertical Tree Volute on our ATV Mist Blowers.) Cover trees in vertical pattern to provide uniform coverage from top to bottom. Coffee growers have found Mist Sprayer applications to be more efficient than any other sprayer method. It is also much less expensive because have found that they can reduce fungicide application rates by up to 30-35% while retaining effectiveness.
Mist Blowers will be a key to controlling many insect pest, bacterial infestations and fungal diseases that affect coffee crops. Timely applications throughout the growing season will help ensure your plants remain healthy.
Coffee Tree Fungal Diseases
There are many fungal diseases in coffee production, however Coffee Rust has the largest economic impact of all diseases world wide.
Coffee Rust Infections occur on the coffee leaves and appears as small, pale yellow spots on the upper surfaces of the leaves that gradually increase in size. The fungus forms masses of orange urediniospores on the undersides of the leaves and sporulates through the stomata rather than breaking through the outer leaf layers. These powdery lesions typically are orange-yellow to red-orange in color and are concentrated around the margins, where dew and rain droplets collect. The center areas of these lesions tend to dry and turn brown, while the outer areas expand and produce urediniospores. Lesions normally appear on the lowermost leaves in the early season progress upward in the tree. Infected leaves will drop prematurely.
Fungicides are important tools in the management of coffee rust in immediate outbreaks in the current season but in future seasons as well. Applications at the end of a growing season will have a major impact on reducing the level of infection at the start of the next season and will prevent defoliation and subsequent yield losses while retaining plant vigor.
Copper based fungicides are very effective in controlling coffee rust and they have been shown to increases coffee crop yields. These types of fungicides must be present on the leaves before infection occurs. Research has shown that copper based fungicides can be alternated with systemic organic fungicides with one or two copper applications applied early in the season, followed by one or occasionally two sprays of a systemic later in the season to arrest developing rust lesions.
Research has also shown that Organic Fungicides (dithiocarbamate) can be effective in coffee rust control, however their residues do not adhere as well as copper based protective fungicides or systemic fungicides in heavy rain conditions.
Timing and coverage are very important. Research shows that 21 day or less spray intervals will keep new growth covered. Getting coverage on the undersides of the leaves is essential.
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Coffee Berry Disease
Coffee berry disease is caused by a virulent fungal strain called Colletotrichum coffeanum. The fungus lives in tree bark and attacks the berries very early in the growing season and affects the green tissues during the berry development. This fungus penetrates deep into the berry interior causing lesions that turn ash gray. The fungus spores thrive in cold conditions and spread through rainwater as well as animal and human carriers. Research has shown that copper based fungicides are best for this fungal control.
Leaf Spot is prevalent in the Americas. It spreads very fast and can be more serious than the leaf rust. The Omphalia Flavida fungus forms circular yellow spots on leaf surfaces that grow into gray lesions that result in heavy damage to the foliage. The fungus also affects the flower, stem and fruit, causing the fruit to drop. It thrives in cold climates and high altitudes. Research shows that a Bordeaux mixture is recommended for fungal control.
Leaf rust spreads light spores through wind, water and animal carriers. These spores drop into the soil and harbor there for a vert long time before germinating in humid conditions. The Hemileia Vastatrix fungus causse circular brown spores on the leaf surface that destroys the foliage. Copper based sprays have shown the best results with this fungus
Brown Eyespot & Berry Blotch
Cercospora Coffeicola fungus attacks leaves causing defoliation and damage to the coffee berry. The infected leaves show tan spots with grayish-white centers and sunken lesions appear on green berries and are brown in color with an ashy center. These lesions can be encircled by a purple halo... or prematurely ripened tissue from the infection. Larger black lesions appear in red coffee fruit and can penetrate all the way to the seed.
Phoma is a soil bourne fungus that attacks coffee leaves and fruit. Leaves develop black or brown spots and green berries develop black spots.
Coffee Tree Insect Pests
Black Twig Borer
The black twig borer is native to Asia is a seriousRobusta coffee pest. It has spread to other growing regions and attacks Arabica coffee trees. Females bore into branches and twigs. It can destroy the tree by tunneling and by transferring pathogens. This pest thrives in humid conditions and feeds on the ambrosia fungus.
Cicada females cut into bark of tree branches and deposit eggs. Nymphs hatch and fall to the ground where they burrow and feed from the sap of the tap root and other larger roots. Tree damage causes chlorosis in the outermost leaves, defoliation, flowers drop, and berry loss.
Coffee Borer Beetle
This small black beetlet bores into the lower portion of the coffee fruit and lays eggs in the seed endosperm. It thrives in humid conditions and dense crop spacing.
Coffee Leaf Miner
This pest is a silvery white moth whose 5 mm larvae penetrate the leaves of coffee plants and feed on the tissues between the epidermis, leaving a hollow area that dries out and results in brown spots. Coffee Leaf Miner can cause intense defoliation and loss of production. Infestations are usually greater during hotter and drier periods of the year.
Coffee Red Mite (Southern Red Mite)
Coffee Red Mite and Southern Red Mite are 0.5mm in length and colored a reddish-orange with dark spots. Infestations occur on the upper surface of mature coffee leaves. The leaves lose their shine and turn a brown, yellow, or bronze color. In dry and hot periods, the foliar damage can lead to premature defoliation of the plant.
Coffee White Stem Borer
Coffee White Stem Borer larvae bore into the stem of coffee plants. Young plants may die within one season of the infestation... older plants can survive for several seasons. ,This pest causes decreased yields and greater susceptibility to disease.
Coffee Green Scales are a pale green color with black spots on its back. These pests secrete a honeydew on the plant leaves that attract ants and other insects. Honeydew can also lead to the growth of a sooty mold that decreases photosynthesis and depreciates the value of the coffee. The pest population can increase quickly as females lay 50-600 eggs that hatch within hours.
Coffee Mealy Bugs attack all locations on the plant an secrete a sticky honeydew that attracts ants and forms black sooty mold on leaves that will reducet photosynthesis.
Red Flat Mite
Red Flat Mite is a very small reddish-orange colored mite. It is found in branches and fruits near the center of the plant. It appears throughout the growing season and populations peak during dry periods. This pest transmits viruses to the plant, including the coffee ringspot virus, which in turn causes premature fruit and leaf drop.